PSYCHOLOGICAL INJURY AND LAW

A JOURNAL

AIMS AND SCOPE and INSTRUCTIONS TO AUTHORS:

LONG VERSION FOR FURTHER INFORMATION PURPOSES

Description

Refer to the ASAPIL website for a complete, up-to-date description of (a) the journal’s aims and scope (on venues of legal and related actions, psychological conditions involved in psychological injury, initiating events of psychological injury, other consequences, e.g., disability, catastrophic impairment, types of victim populations, the role of attorneys and the court, assessment, and journal goals), (b) information for contributors, and author guidelines, and (c) the review or evaluation process. Aims and Scope

Psychological Injury and Law is a journal designed as a multidisciplinary forum for the dissemination of research articles and scholarly exchanges about issues pertaining to the interface of psychology and law in the area of trauma, injury, and their psychological impact. The journal intends to help build the evidentiary research base of the field, and to critically examine its concepts and practice.

Psychological impairments and disabilities may arise from physical and/or mental injuries ascribed to alleged negligent actions. They need to be judiciously assessed for their validity, and treated when evaluated as valid. They lead to legal and related action when there are long term or permanent effects.

Instructions to Authors/ Detailed Aims and Scope

I. General Submission Guidelines

The journal Psychological Injury and Law (PIL) is a quarterly peer-reviewed journal that publishes articles in furtherance of the mission of ASAPIL, the Association for Scientific Advancement in Psychological Injury and Law. It is an umbrella organization to advance the science and practice of psychological injury and law through multiple projects such as the journal, a graduate level textbook, an annual conference, and an e-newsletter. To explore further the association and its projects, consult www.asapil.org.

Psychological Injury and Law is a journal designed as a multidisciplinary forum for the dissemination of research articles and scholarly exchanges about issues pertaining to the interface of psychology and law in the area of trauma, injury, and their psychological impact. The journal intends to help build the evidentiary research base of the field, and to critically examine its concepts and practice.

Psychological impairments and disabilities may arise from physical and/or mental injuries ascribed to alleged negligent actions. They need to be judiciously assessed for their validity, and treated when evaluated as valid. They lead to legal and related action when there are long term or permanent effects.

Venues. Psychological injuries are contested in a wide variety of legal and administrative flora. They may lead to tort claims, rehabilitation claims, Social Security claims, workers compensation claims, Veteran Administration claims, disability insurance claims, refugee and immigration claims, and so on.

Psychological conditions. In cases of psychological injury, the psychologist is evaluating conditions such as posttraumatic stress disorder, chronic pain, and traumatic brain injury, but they may be dealing with other conditions involving psychological injury, such as acute stress disorder, phobia, other anxiety disorders, dissociative disorder, major depression, conversion disorder, trauma-induced psychosis, acute pain after an injury, and postconcussive syndrome. The psychologist examines carefully for subthreshold and less intense conditions, such as subsyndromal disorders, subacute pain, and temporary effects of minor blows to the head.

Initiating events. The situations that may lead to psychological injuries include injuries sustained in motor vehicle accidents, work accidents, and other accidents, but also other physical injuries, physical illnesses, military combat, sexual victimization, domestic violence, assault, various abuses and harassments, community violence, natural disasters, mass disasters, terrorism, exposure to war, torture, malpractice, product dysfunction, etc. Of course, the practitioner may decide that presenting symptoms are due entirely to factors independent of or preceding these initiating events.

Other consequences. In terms of the consequences of psychological injuries, areas involving long-term functional outcome are especially crucial. These include the ability to undertake activities of daily living and engage in an adequate quality of life, the effects of concomitant serious physical injuries or severe brain injury, including possible, catastrophic whole-body impairment, an inability to return to work, possible transferable or residual skills with respect to alternative work, and possible permanent vocational and other disabilities.

Types of populations. The journal considers submissions on the various conditions and consequences deriving from the events in question. We solicit articles that deal not only with adults, but also that consider gender differences, children, adolescents, the elderly, people with disability, minorities, sociodemographic factors, and so on.

Attorneys and the court. Attorneys dealing with psychologists expect that they are experts who (a) possess state—of—the—art knowledge of the current scientific literature, (b) have the capacity to undertake comprehensive and reliable assessments that aid the trier of fact, (c) understand relevant evidence law in their jurisdictions, and other applicable law and legal issues, and (d) can deal effectively with the legal requirements, terminology, standards, and thresholds in the particular cases at hand. The courts expect that experts possess sufficient knowledge along these lines and aim to meet admissibility requirements. We look forward to submissions that deal with all matters of legal and court considerations.

Assessments. The psychological conditions and consequences involved in psychological injury need to be verified by comprehensive assessments that include evaluation of threats to validity, including possible malingering. Professionals in the field need to possess the practical and scientific knowledge to evaluate the validity of an individual’s presentation, for example, by examining response biases, confounding factors, and possible malingering. They use psychological instruments with acceptable psychometric properties, such as reliability and validity. They adopt a multifactorial model of causality, considering possible effects of pre-existing, event-related, post-event, and ongoing factors unrelated to the event. The journal seeks submissions on assessment procedures and instruments that will help practitioners undertake their assessments.

Goals. We anticipate submission of works with a balanced, reasoned, and methodologically sound focus, which help professionals remain competent and current, therefore helping them meet any Daubert or other challenges to the admissibility of their evidence. An auxiliary goal is to inform members of the legal and judicial professions about recent developments in psychology and the law pertaining to the assessment of psychological injury and evidence law vetting admissibility to court.

Journal structure. We have organized the editorial board into seven separate sections, each with a roster of expert board members. The seven areas are: (a) law (evidence, tort, personal injury, and applicable regulations governing social security, workers compensation, veterans administration, disability insurance, etc.), (b) forensic psychology, (c) disability (e.g., from work, caregiving, education), and the particular topics of (d) pain, (e) traumatic brain injury, (f) posttraumatic stress/ distress, and (g) assessment/ malingering. An additional section of editorial board members consists of consultants who are distinguished researchers and editors. Board members are chosen for their balanced, impartial, scientific approach.

Types of submissions. Psychological Injury and Law accepts manuscripts describing original research, reviews of past research, theoretical studies, and practical work. When warranted, the editors will solicit other papers, such as critical commentaries, debates, exchanges, replies to published articles, and case studies. In addition, suggestions for book reviews will be accepted for consideration. We encourage submission of manuscripts of the several major types of articles typical for psychology journals, but because of our legal focus, we also seek articles typical for law journals. We will accept the style typically used by legal scholars, for example, with respect to numbering and footnoting references. Submissions from professionals outside of psychology are encouraged, such as from other mental health professionals, the legal and medical communities, and the rehabilitation and vocational communities, as long as they consider psychological implications.

Full-Length Articles. Original research, reviews of past research, theoretical studies, and articles with practical applications. The journal is dedicated to publishing peer-reviewed scientific literature on psychology, law, trauma, and injury. We expect that all works will address the legal implications of their main topic. They should deal with current topics, be rigorously written, and advance the field. The editors suggest a maximum manuscript length (typed, doubled-spaced, according to APA style) of about 55 pages, with shorter ones anticipated as the norm.

Short Commentaries. Due to the adversarial nature of the field, critical commentaries, debates, exchanges, and replies to published research will be accepted (about 25 pages in length, at most). When warranted, the editors will expressly solicit these types of work. When deemed appropriate, we will include psychological case studies and case law summaries. In addition, book reviews may be suggested to us. Finally, brief notes on pertinent topics will be published.

Special Issues. Individuals who are interested in serving as guest editor for a special issue of Psychological Injury and Law should submit the following to the Editor-in-Chief: (a) 2-page description of the content of the proposed issue, (b) names of committed and potential contributors and the subject of their manuscripts, (c) projected number of pages, (d) proposed submission date, and (e) current Curriculum Vitae of all participants.

State/ Provincial/ Foreign Updates. The journal envisages creating a series of articles on local issues pertaining to the field, and each article will share the title, “Psychological Injury and Law: [State” (Province, Country)]. The papers shall deals with issues particular to the state/ jurisdiction. For example, does the federal ruling on admissibility requirements of evidence proffered to court, Daubert (1993), apply in the local state/ jurisdiction, or is there a variant that governs decision about admissibility of evidence, or is the 1923 Frye decision about general acceptance still used as a guide to admissibility challenges? What are some recent decisions in arbitration, state court, administrative tribunals, or critical case law, regulations, or statutes that affect practice, and that impact patients in our field? What are the various thresholds to receive therapy, to obtain disability benefits, to be declared permanently injured, to be eligible to pursue compensation for damages in tort, etc.? As for disability insurance policies, the threshold criteria vary from policy to policy, but authors could undertake a review of several major ones in any one state/ jurisdiction. Are their special issues in the state or jurisdiction pertaining to these questions? We intend to keep the series of articles different than those being written for the major sections of the journal, such as for the forensic section. Our goal is to have one or two articles per issue on individual states, provinces, or countries, with the biggest-population states reviewed first. The length of manuscripts submitted along these lines should be about 15 to 20 pages.

Also for the journal, we have space for brief notes on state/ provincial/ local issues, so that local representatives can send in new developments as they arise pertaining to the field. This will act to increase local interest in the association and journal.

Evaluation Criteria. Potential authors are encouraged to submit a one- or two-paragraph description of intended submissions in order to obtain preliminary but nondefinitive feedback. This may orient them in their writing, or may even help them decide whether the intended submission fits the journal, contributing sufficiently to the field for it to be considered, and so on.

Papers that are submitted in completed form will be evaluated for their importance to the field, scientific rigor, practical implications, potential impact, suitability for the journal, and clarity of writing. The primary determinants of editorial decisions are based on whether the paper enlarges the understanding of important psychological issues in psychological injury and law, orients mental health professionals to practice in the field, broadens understanding of law and related matters pertaining to psychological injury, or whether the paper promotes better use of mental health expertise by the legal profession and the courts.

The breadth of disciplines, theories, and research methodologies employed in submissions to Psychological Injury and Law makes it difficult to qualify what constitutes critical aspects of manuscripts that should be present to succeed in the review process. Successful manuscripts generally will have: (1) clearly articulated goals that serve to organize its sections: introduction, methods and procedure, results, data, findings, and discussion and conclusions; (2) if a research report, the submission should present a well-designed and justified study and clearly supported and testable hypotheses, as well as; (3) well-documented methods and procedures; (4) appropriate presentation of results, data, or findings, including appropriate descriptive statistics and statistical analyses, with presentation of appropriate means and variance statistics or effect sizes for key significant and non-significant results; and (5) conclusions that follow appropriately from the existing literature and the data and findings obtained.

The author feedback form provided to reviewers elaborates these 5 points into a list of 25 guidelines for commentary on submissions, not all of which may apply to any one submission. The 25 points for possible commentary involve: (1) General Comments. (2) Appropriate for journal, relevant, timely, of interest, meaningful. (3) Title. (4) Abstract. (5) Introduction. (6) Literature review (comprehensive, recent). (7) Clarity of hypotheses/ thesis/ justifications. (8) Quality of (research) design. (9) Methods/ procedures (e.g., participants, groups, sampling, ethics review, measures, operationalization, treatments). (10) Data reduction and data analyses (descriptive and experimental statistics, including meta-analyses; if applicable, table summarizing literature, etc.). (11) Results (empirical findings, other data; points of literature review, if applicable; or mental health case, case laws, clinical procedure/ treatment/ technique/ program/ intervention). (12) Discussion. (13) Summary. (14) Interpretation of key results, data, findings (support literature/ hypotheses, modify them, counter them). (15) Limits. (16) Future directions. (17) Practice implications. (18) Legal implications. (19) References. (20) Tables/ figures. (21) Overview of strengths and weaknesses. (22) Conceptualization quality. (23) Contribution to field. (24) Utility to practitioners/ attorneys or judges. (25) Writing quality (organization, clarity, style).

Submission Review Guidelines. The editorial team of the journal has established guidelines regarding the review process of manuscripts submitted for publication to the journal. This set of rules deals with procedures beyond the typical ones, such as asking for a review within a decent time frame and getting at least two independent reviews. By way of these guidelines, the journal is reinforcing that we adhere to a methodology and "evidence-based" decision-making process in arriving at decisions concerning the acceptability of manuscripts submitted for publication.

1. Most important, the manuscript review process should be transparent, with full disclosure of any possible conflict of interest, so that scholars submitting manuscripts feel confident that the reviews are free from bias to the degree possible. In distributing reviews to board members or ad hoc reviewers, within reasonable limits, section heads should attempt to monitor possible conflicts of interest. Even though there is overlap, the concept of a "conflict of interest" is a different from the concept of a "dual relationship." Not all dual relationships end in conflict of interest; for example, one may have a history of collaborating with someone whose report one is reviewing, but it may not necessarily cause a conflict of interest; the conflict of interest occurs, for example, if the reviewer has a reasonably expected or proven professional or monetary interest in having certain views offered for the reviewer’s benefit or the benefit of a group with which the reviewer is affiliated. Nevertheless, for purposes of full disclosure, the journal requests that all reviewers disclose any dual relationships, if applicable, even if they are not personally considered as conflicts of interest. Note that these possible conflicts of interest in reviewers with respect to papers that may be sent to them for review should not be reason to exclude them as possible reviewers of the papers. It is understood that the field can be adversarial in nature, and it is in the best interest of the journal to canvass the full range of opinions in the field, especially about potentially controversial papers. To facilitate implementation of this review rule, before undertaking a review, each reviewer should acknowledge to the section head involved all possible potential conflicts of interest relevant to any requested review.

2. All reviewers should undertake carefully each review in which they are involved. They should examine submissions in depth, based on the 25-point general outline of an effective, comprehensive review (that has been given above). By following these comprehensive manuscript review rules, and by describing any decision made about a manuscript being reviewed within the context of their framework, reviewers help ensure the transparency and efficacy of the submission review process.

3. A reviewer may disagree with the conclusions found in a submission, but if the paper is of the controversial type that deserves publication with a (simultaneous) rebuttal, the reviewer should propose this option instead of rejecting the paper. Reviewers will encounter scenarios such as this because the adversarial nature of the field may characterize some submissions. Should the reviewer of a particular controversial paper disagree with the conclusions reached, as long as the manuscript is based on acceptable methodology, data, and reasoning, within appropriate limits in the context of the nature of the disagreement involved in the field, the recommendation should tend towards accepting the manuscript, with proposal of an invitation for rebuttal. Whether the reviewer her- or himself should write the rebuttal will be decided by the section head involved, in consultation with the senior editorial board.

4. If someone disagrees with the review decision and editorial process (e.g., we later find something of great consternation in the paper, such as plagiarism or objectively verifiable errors or fabrications, or we find out something of great consternation in the manuscript review process), editors may decide to alter initial decisions. There may be factors of a serious nature that authors or reviewers had not realized or considered. Authors, reviewers, and editors understand that decisions that had been taken in good faith may be revised, should new, relevant information come to light. Events may transpire beyond our ability to predict them; however, in revising decisions already made, all involved must understand that, in the end, we are acting in the best interests of the field, science, and the journal.

5. For the special issues being written by board members of a particular section or their delegates, each section head involved should rotate the articles among the others on her/his board in order to obtain the required reviews. For special issues that do not involve this approach, the section head involved should follow usual procedures for obtaining independent reviews.

6. When a senior and/or action editor receives and reviews a submission, even if it had been invited, the appropriate section head still has to conduct the official review with her or his team. The initial editor(s) only undertake a first reading preparatory for section review. However, the section head involved may decline further review after checking the quality of the manuscript, should there have been two or more reviews already of the submission.

7. In cases of disagreement about manuscript acceptability between the editor in chief and a section head, where the section head had undertaken an appropriate manuscript review, the opinion of the section head shall hold sway. Normally, the section head knows the material better than the editor in chief. However, in cases where the editor in chief is in the same field as the section head, the section head should assure from the beginning that the editor in chief is given the choice of being an additional reviewer beyond the two or more chosen by the section head.

8. Manuscripts submitted by any senior editor or section head are distributed to a senior editor who is not involved in the submission (e.g., the editor in chief asks the associate psychology editor to handle the review process for an article that she or he is submitting). This person then establishes whether the submission fits in the framework of one particular section, or whether it is general enough that the full senior board of section heads should be solicited for two or more reviews.

9. In cases of submissions that overlap the topic matter of two or more sections, a collaborative review process needs to be instituted and supervised by the editor in chief or another senior member of the board. Normally, the section head whose topic matter is involved the most in the submission undertakes the review with her or his team, but she or she ensures that secondary topics in the article are vetted by at least one member of other sections that should be called upon.

10. Both authors, in writing their manuscripts, and reviewers, in appraising them, should be especially sensitive to diversity issues and the question of special populations. Where it seems necessary, authors and reviewers need to consider whether a manuscript has considered the impact of factors such as demographic background, race or any other way of describing minority or different populations, sex/ gender, age/ developmental level, disability, forensic compared to more representative population distributions, and so on. In psychology, we try to be aware of gender and race, in particular. As examples, for a submission pertaining to the development of a new assessment instrument, have the author(s) considered whether there is a need for separate male and female norms? About race, the journal expects that prevalence or epidemiological reviews consider factors along these lines. In law, as an example, perhaps there are legal decisions that do not take into account an increased susceptibility to pain in females, or gender in other ways, thereby penalizing women.

Conflict of interest. All submitted work must clearly state any sources of potential conflict of interest, the source of funding, if any, the type of work typically undertaken (for example, plaintiff or patient-related, defense or third-party payor-related, or both) by the author(s), and that in the research or practice conducted pertaining to it, all professional requirements and ethics had been followed. All professional links that author(s) may have with advocacy representatives, liaisons, pharmaceutical companies, test companies, or other commercial ventures or organizations related in any way to the submission in question must be acknowledged.

II. Specific Submission Guidelines

Manuscript Preparation. The following are guidelines for developing and submitting a manuscript. Manuscripts must be professionally prepared in accordance with the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 6th edition, 2010. Manuscripts must be copyedited for bias-free language (see chap. 2 of the Publication Manual). Manuscripts that do not conform to these guidelines will be returned to the author without review, and with recommendations for change to complete the submission process.

Manuscript Style.

General

Type double-spaced using generous margins on all sides. The entire manuscript, including quotations, references, figure-caption list, and tables, should be double-spaced. Number all pages consecutively with Arabic numerals, with the title page being page 1. In order to facilitate masked (previously termed "double-blind") review, leave all identifying information off the manuscript, including the title page and the electronic file name. Appropriate identifying information is attached automatically to the electronic file. Upon initial submission, the title page should include only the title of the article.

Manuscripts should not exceed 55 pages in length; however, longer manuscripts may be considered. Commentaries and other short articles may be up to 25 pages in length. Presentation of case studies, case law, book reviews, and brief reports should average 5-15 pages.

An additional title page should be uploaded as a separate submission item and should include the title of the article, author's name (with degrees), and author's affiliation. Academic affiliations of all authors should be included. The affiliation should comprise the department, institution (usually university or company), city, and state (or nation) and should be typed as a footnote to the author's name. This title page should also include the complete mailing address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the one author designated to review proofs.

An abstract of about 120 words is to be provided.

A list of 3−5 key words is to be provided directly below the abstract. Key words should express the precise content of the manuscript, as they are used for indexing purposes.

Illustrations (photographs, drawings, diagrams, and charts) are to be numbered in one consecutive series of Arabic numerals and cited in numerical order in the text. Photographs should be high-contrast and drawings should be dark, sharp, clear, and professional. Artwork for each figure should be provided on a separate page appended to the end of the manuscript. Each figure should have an accompanying caption. The captions for illustrations should be listed on a separate page.

Tables should be numbered (with Arabic numerals) and referred to by number in the text. Each table should be typed on a separate page. Center the title above the table, and type explanatory footnotes (indicated by superscript lowercase letters) below the table.

For statistics, effect sizes should accompany major results. In addition, authors may want to use prep rather than p values (see the article by Killeen in the May 2005 issue of Psychological Science, Vol. 16, pp. 345-353). Thus, typical statistical reports would follow formats like these: t(50) = 2.68, prep = .95, d = 0.76; F(1, 30) = 4.69, prep = .90, n2 = .135; or B = .61, prep = .99, d = 1.56. When relevant, bar and line graphs should include distributional information, usually confidence intervals or standard errors of the mean.

List references alphabetically at the end of the paper and refer to them in the text by name and year in parentheses. References should include (in this order): last names and initials of all authors, year published, title of article, name of publication, volume number, and inclusive pages. The style and punctuation of the references should conform to strict APA style.

Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, footnotes should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and should be typed at the bottom of the page to which they refer. Place a line above the footnote, so that it is set off from the text. Use the appropriate superscript numeral for citation in the text.

Details

(a) Language. Articles and abstracts must be in American English, but the journal accepts additional abstracts in other languages of the author’s choice (for instance in the author’s first language, if not English or the journal’s official language). Such abstracts are optional. Authors would need to supply such abstracts themselves, certify that they are a faithful translation of the official abstract, and they must be supplied in Unicode (see www.unicode.org for details), especially if they are using non-roman characters. Such abstracts in other languages will carry a disclaimer: “This abstract is provided by the author(s), and is for convenience of the users only. The author certifies that the translation faithfully represents the official version in the language of the journal, which is the published Abstract of record and is the only Abstract to be used for reference and citation.” Authors whose primary language is not English are encouraged to seek editorial assistance from a professional colleague who is a native English speaker.

(b) Content & Style. Manuscripts should be checked for content and style (correct spelling, punctuation, and grammar; accuracy and consistency in the citation of figures, tables, and references; stylistic uniformity of entries in the References section; etc.), because the typesetter is instructed to follow (accepted) manuscripts as presented. Page proofs are sent to the designated author for proofreading and checking. Typographical errors are corrected; authors’ alterations are not allowed. As mentioned, manuscripts should follow the American Psychological Association’s Publication Manual.

(c) Length. Manuscripts should not exceed 55 pages in length; however, longer manuscripts may be considered. Commentaries and other short articles may be up to 25 pages in length. Presentation of case studies, case law, book reviews, and brief reports should average 5-15 pages.

(d) First pages. The title page must include authors’ names, positions, titles, affiliations, and full contact information (address, phone, fax, and e-mail). The title page should also include a concise running title, and an unnumbered footnote giving an address for reprint requests and acknowledgements.

An additional title page should be uploaded as a separate submission item and should include the title of the article, author's name (with degrees), and author's affiliation. Academic affiliations of all authors should be included. The affiliation should comprise the department, institution (usually university or company), city, and state (or nation) and should be typed as a footnote to the author's name. This title page should also include the complete mailing address, telephone number, fax number, and e-mail address of the one author designated to review proofs. This information should not be included elsewhere in the manuscript, to ensure blind review.

The second page should contain the title of the paper, an abstract of no more than 120 words, and 3 to 5 key words listed directly below the abstract. Key words should express the precise content of the manuscript, as they are used for indexing purposes.

(e) Text. Formatting instructions (all copy must be double-spaced, with one-inch margins, in the font Times New Roman, font size 12) and instructions on the preparation of tables, figures, references, metrics, and abstracts appear in the Manual. For APA’s Checklist for Manuscript Submission, see www.apa.org/journals. Because the technical terms used by behavioral scientists and lawyers differ greatly, in the interest of wider accessibility, the Editor will suggest changes deemed necessary for the sake of clarity.

(f) References. Since the journal publishes articles written by both behavioural scientists and lawyers, manuscript style may conform to either the Uniform System of Citation (Bluebook), distributed by the Harvard Law Review Association, Cambridge, Massachusetts, or the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010), distributed by the American Psychological Association, Washington, D.C. For contributions from mental health professionals, references should be listed in alphabetical order. Each listed reference should be cited in the text, and each text citation should be listed in the References. List references alphabetically at the end of the paper and refer to them in the text by name and year in parentheses. References should include (in this order): last names and initials of all authors, year published, title of article, name of publication, volume number, and inclusive pages. The style and punctuation of the references should conform to strict APA style. For contributions from legal professionals, the style of numbering references, and providing the information needed as footnotes is appropriate. Basic formats are as follows:

Psychological style examples:

Butcher, J. N., Dahlstrom, W. G., Graham, J. R., Tellegen, A., & Kaemmer, B. (1989). Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory: Manual for administration and scoring (2nd ed.). Minneapolis, MN: University of Minnesota Press.

Cocchiarella, L., & Andersson, G. B. J. (Eds.). (2001). Guides to the evaluation of permanent impairment (5th ed.). Chicago, IL: American Medical Association.

Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals, Inc. 113 S. Ct. 2786 (1993).

Gatchel, R., & Kishino, N. (2006). The influence of personality characteristics on pain patients: Implications for causality in pain. In G. Young, A. W. Kane, & K. Nicholson (Eds.), Psychological knowledge in court: PTSD, pain, and TBI (pp. 149–162). New York: Springer Science + Business Media.

Gatchel, R. J., Peng, Y. B., Peters, M. L., Fuchs, P. N., & Turk, D. C. (2007). The biopsychosocial approach to chronic pain: Scientific advances and future directions. Psychological Bulletin, 133, 581-624.

Legalstyle examples:

. See C. Wright & V. Gold, 29 Federal Practice and Procedure § 6264 (2007).

2. Fed. R. Evid. 702. The process of examining the expert in court to determine qualification is sometimes referred to as “voir dire.” A somewhat similar process of voir dire is used to determine whether jurors are qualified to serve. Mandatory disclosure rules like those discussed earlier also provide the parties and the court information with which to assess qualification.

3. See D. Faigman, D. Kaye, M. Saks, & J. Sanders, Science in the Law: Standards, Statistics and Research Issues § 1-3.3.1 (2002).

4. See, e.g., Grenitz v. Tomlian, 858 So. 2d 999 (Fla. 2003).

Empirical Research. Reports of original empirical research must include a statement in the Method section or in a cover letter either certifying that the research was conducted in accord with prevailing ethical principles or explaining the rationale for departures from those principles. See the 6th edition of the APA Publication Manual (2010), pp. 387-396. For manuscripts that describe original research on human participants, the author should include a statement in the cover letter indicating that the research had been approved by an Institutional Review Board, and this information should be conveyed in the manuscript.

Preserving Personal Integrity. Authors must adhere to the Publication Manual’s instructions (see chap. 2) regarding the use of “disabling language”, that is, terminology that equates individuals with the conditions they have or that implies that the person as a whole is disabled, as in the expression “disabled person”. Terms that preserve personal integrity (e.g., “person with a disability”) should be used, and phrases with negative connotations (e.g., “stroke victim”, “confined to a wheelchair”) should be replaced with neutral terminology (“person with a stroke”, “wheelchair user”).

Illustrations, Figures, Tables, etc. Illustrations (photographs, drawings, diagrams, and charts) are to be numbered in one consecutive series of Arabic numerals and cited in numerical order in the text. Photographs should be high-contrast and drawings should be dark, sharp, clear, and professional. Artwork for each figure should be provided on a separate page appended to the end of the manuscript. Each figure should have an accompanying caption. The captions for illustrations should be listed on a separate page.

Tables should be numbered (with Arabic numerals) and referred to by number in the text. Each table should be typed on a separate page. Center the title above the table, and type explanatory footnotes (indicated by superscript lowercase letters) below the table.

Statistics. For statistics, effect sizes should accompany major results. In addition, authors may want to use prep rather than p values (see the article by Killeen in the May 2005 issue of Psychological Science, Vol. 16, pp. 345-353). Thus, typical statistical reports would follow formats like these: t(50) = 2.68, prep = .95, d = 0.76; F(1, 30) = 4.69, prep = .90, n2 = .135; or B = .61, prep = .99, d = 1.56. When relevant, bar and line graphs should include distributional information, usually confidence intervals or standard errors of the mean.

Footnotes. Footnotes should be avoided. When their use is absolutely necessary, footnotes should be numbered consecutively using Arabic numerals and should be typed at the bottom of the page to which they refer. Place a line above the footnote, so that it is set off from the text. Use the appropriate superscript numeral for citation in the text.

III. Manuscript Submission.

Inquiries. Inquiries regarding journal policy, manuscript preparation, and other such general topics should be sent to the Editor-in-Chief:

Dr. Gerald Young, Ph.D.

Department of Psychology Glendon College, York University 2275 Bayview Ave. Toronto, Ontario, Canada, M4N 3M6

416-247-1625 (clinical office);

416-487-6738-(university) Fax: 416-247-3463

gyoung@glendon.yorku.ca

Submissions. Manuscripts, should be submitted via the journal’s web-based online manuscript submission and peer-review system at:

http://www.editorialmanager.com/pial/

The journal editor should be sent a confirmatory email about the submission, so that journal staff can be alerted to incoming submissions.

The online system offers simple and straightforward log-in and submission of manuscripts procedure, and supports a wide range or submission file formats.

Please click the 'Login' button from the menu above and log in to the system as 'Author'. Then submit your manuscript and track its progress through the system. The online system offers easy straightforward log-in and submission; supports a wide range of submission file formats [such as Word, WordPerfect, RTF, TXT, and LaTeX for manuscripts; TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, and Postscript for figures (artwork)]; eliminates the need to submit manuscripts as hard-copy printouts, disks, and/or e-mail attachments; enables real-time tracking of manuscript status by author; and provides help should authors experience any submission difficulties. PDF is not an acceptable file format.

Cover Letter. Authors should include in their submission letter: (a) a statement of compliance with APA ethical standards in the conduct of the work reported in the manuscript, (b) a statement that the manuscript or data have not been previously published and that they are not presently under consideration for publication elsewhere, (c) a statement that all listed authors have contributed significantly to the work submitted for consideration, (d) a brief statement describing the relevance of the paper’s content to the journal, and (e) other relevant information as required in this document or judged relevant by the authors.

Masked Review Policy. This journal has adopted a policy of masked review for all submissions. The cover letter should include all authors’ names and institutional affiliations. The first page of text should omit this information but include the title of the manuscript and the date it is submitted. Every effort should be made to see that the manuscript itself contains no clues to the authors’ identity.

Review and Selection of Manuscripts. On receipt, a manuscript is appraised by the Editor and/or an Associate Editor for its conformity to the overall guidelines and preferences of the journal. Authors who submit manuscripts deemed unsuitable or likely not to be competitive for limited publication space will be notified of this decision within 2 weeks of receipt. Manuscripts that pass initial screening will then be reviewed by outside referees and the author will receive a notice of acceptance, rejection, or need for revision, usually within 4 to 6 weeks. Rejected manuscripts cannot be reconsidered unless resubmission following revision has been invited or cleared by the Editor. Accepted papers are edited to improve readability and effectiveness of communication. When editing is extensive or when the author’s meaning is not clear, the manuscript may be returned to the author for review and retyping before the article goes to press.

Publication Policies.

Copyright Transfer. Submission is a representation that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not currently under consideration for publication elsewhere. A statement transferring copyright from the authors (or their employers, if they hold the copyright) to Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, is required. Upon commencement of typesetting, the contact author will receive an e-mail directing him/her to a webpage where the transfer-of-copyright form can be signed online. Such a written transfer of copyright, which previously was assumed to be implicit in the act of submitting a manuscript, is necessary under the U.S. Copyright Law in order for the publisher to carry through the dissemination of research results and reviews as widely and effectively as possible.

The American Psychological Association’s (APA) policy regarding posting articles on the Internet may be found at www.apa.org/journals.

Publication Elsewhere. Submission is a representation that the manuscript has not been published previously and is not currently under consideration for publications elsewhere. For manuscripts reporting data from a data set that has been published previously (or is being considered for publication), the author should include a statement in the cover letter describing the other research using the same data base, and provide the necessary references. Authors are required to submit copies of any papers under review, in press, or previously published whose content closely relates to that of the manuscript in question and that might be perceived as constituting duplicate publication.

In addition, it is a violation of APA Ethical Principles to publish “as original data, data that have been previously published” (Standard 8.13). APA policy also prohibits publication of any manuscript that has already been published in whole or in substantial part elsewhere. It is the position of the Editorial Board of Psychological Injury and Law that authors may prepare more than one manuscript deriving from a single data set, on the assumption that the papers report meaningfully different aspects of the data. In the text of the manuscript, authors should explain how the study in question differs from and expands on any previous work that relied in whole or in part on a shared database. It is the responsibility of the authors to consult with the Editor or Associate Editors to clarify the acceptability of a given submission.

Making Data Available. Furthermore, APA Ethical Principles state that “after research results are published, psychologist do not withhold the data on which their conclusions are based from other competent professionals who seek to verify the substantive claims through reanalysis and who intend to use such data only for that purpose, provided that the confidentiality of the participants can be protected and unless legal rights concerning proprietary data preclude their release” (Standard 8.14). Authors are expected to have their data available throughout the review process and for at least 5 years after publication.

Permissions. Upon final acceptance, Authors are required to obtain and provide to the Editor-in-Chief all necessary permissions to reproduce in print and electronic format any copyrighted work, including, for example, test materials (or portions thereof) and photographs.

In addition, Authors are responsible for obtaining written permission from copyright owners for illustrations, adaptations, or quotes of more than 300 words.

Submission of Accepted Manuscripts. After a manuscript has been accepted for publication and after all revisions have been incorporated, manuscripts should be submitted to the Editor’s Office as hard copy accompanied by electronic files on disc. Label the disk with identifying information – software, journal name, and first author’s last name. The disc must be the one from which the accompanying manuscript (finalized version) was printed out. The Editor’s Office cannot accept a disk without its accompanying, matching hardcopy manuscript.

Please note; the most frequent reason for publication delays is failure of corresponding author(s) to return proofs. Keep the Editor apprised of any changes in contact information for this reason.

No Page Charges

The journal makes no page charges. Reprints are available to authors. Upon the commencement of typesetting, the contact author will receive an e-mail directing him/her to a webpage that provides reprint ordering information, including the current price schedules and where reprints can be ordered online.

Springer Open Choice

In addition to the normal publication process (whereby an article is submitted to the journal and access to that article is granted to customers who have purchased a subscription), Springer now provides an alternative publishing option: Springer Open Choice. A Springer Open Choice article receives all the benefits of a regular subscription-based article, but in addition is made available publicly through Springer’s online platform SpringerLink. After acceptance and upon commencement of typesetting, the contact author will receive an e-mail directing him/her to a webpage that provides Springer Open Access ordering information, including the current price schedule, and where Springer Open Access can be ordered online. Payment must be received in full before publication or articles will publish as regular subscription-model articles. We regret that Springer Open Choice cannot be ordered for published articles. For more information, please visit www.springeronline.com/openchoice

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